Style Sheets


  • Use full words rather than abbrevations in the body of the text.
    • ‘for example’ rather than ‘e.g.’
    • ‘that is’ instead of ‘i.e.’
    • ‘and so on’ instead of ‘etc.’
  • If you are using abbrevations, use full stops where appropriate
    For example: i.e., etc.
  • Contractions ending with the same letter as the original word do not take a full stop.
    For example: Mrs, Dr, No
  • No full stops should be used in upper-case abbreviations
    For example: US, UK
  • Abbreviated units of measurement should be SI standard. These do not have full stops and do not take a plural ‘s’.
    For example: 1 km, 2 kg / m2, 3 L

Accents, diacritics and special characters

  • Highlight in yellow all occurrences of letters with accents and diacritics and any foreign, special or IPA characters.
  • List these on your Manuscript Delivery Form.

Acts of Parliament

  • The title of the Act should have no comma between it and the year
  • Use a lower-case ‘t’ for ‘the’ before the name of the Act
  • For example: the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988

Bibliography and citation style

General guidelines

Consistency is king

  • Whichever style you use, the most important thing is to be consistent.

Publications with three or more authors

  • Give all of the authors’ names in the full bibliographic citation.
  • In all other citations, use the first author's surname followed by ‘et al.’.

Place of publication

  • Consistency is key: if you are including the place of publication, make sure this is included for all sources. If you do not know the place of publication for all sources, leave it out for all sources.
  • Where appropriate, include the state code for cities that might be confused with other cities
  • For example: Cambridge, MA if this might be confused with Cambridge in the UK.


  • Here, there are no numbered notes, only a single list of references in a bibliography.
  • In most cases, the bibliography will be at the end of the book.
  • In multi-author works, each chapter may have its own bibliography instead of one bibliography at the end of the book.
  • For guidelines and examples, see the Chicago Manual of Style chapter on Author-Date.

Notes and Bibliography

  • Citations are given in numbered notes.
  • The first time a citation is given, it is written in full.
  • After the first time, use only the author's surname and a shortened version of the title (other shortened versions are acceptable provided that they are clear and consistent).
  • Do not use 'op. cit.'. You can use 'Ibid.' when it is clear to do so.
  • For guidelines and examples, see the Chicago Manual of Style chapter on Notes and Bibliography.

See also: Notes


  • Keep capitals to a minimum.

When to use capitals

  • Full caps for acronyms, e.g. NATO, USA, TV.
  • Small caps are only used for BC, AD, CE and BCE .
  • Capitalise ‘Chapter’ for internal cross references.
  • Capitalise to distinguish specific from general
  • For example:
    ‘She is a professor at the University of Edinburgh.’
    ‘She is Professor of Literature at the University of Edinburgh.’


  • Write dates as: day of the week, comma, dates as Arabic numeral, full name of the month, full year in figures.
    • For example: Monday, 11 November 2019
  • Decades do not take an apostrophe before the 's'
  • For example: the 1930s
  • For date ranges, use an en rule with no spaces: 1999–2001, 2005–18, 9–15 August 1984.

See also: en and em rules
See also: numbers


  • You can use either BC and AD or CE and BCE as long as you are consistent.
  • BC, CE and BCE follows the year.
  • AD comes before the year.
  • Use small caps for BC, AD, CE and BCE.
  • Do not use AD or CE from the year 500 onwards (unless it is important in the context of the book).
    • For example: 43 BC, AD 499, 1984.
  • If the date is approximate, indicate this with 'c.'
    • For example: ‘c. AD 350’.

The - using the definite article

  • Use a lower-case ‘t’ before names of associations, companies, institutions and other bodies.
    For example: We are a fully owned subsidiary of the University of Edinburgh.
  • For newspapers and periodicals, follow the use of ‘the’ in the title.
    • For example: the Daily Telegraph, The Guardian.


  • Use a space before an elipsis
  • Use either a space or the appropriate closing punctuation (for example, a closing quotation mark or bracket) after an ellipsis.
  • Avoid following ellipses with a full stop or a comma.

See also: Quotations


  • Emphasis should be achieved through phrasing and grammar and not by text formatting.

En and Em rules

  • We prefer en rules over em rules. Em rules should only be used when working on a revision of a text where em rules are already in place.
  • Use en rules with a space either side in text.
  • Use un-spaced en rules wherever the dash can be interpreted as ‘to’. This includes date ranges.


En rule as parenthetical dash

Burns refers to one such collection – generally believed to be Joseph Ritson's Select Collection of English Songs – in his letter to Moore as being his 'vade mecum'.

En rule for ranges

Dates: 1900–1, 1900–10, 1910–18, 1923–4

Pages: pp. 368–71

See also: numbers


  • Mark as ‘EXT’ all quotations of more than 40 words; numbered lists; verse extracts of one or more lines; small tables in the text. See also: Tables.
  • All extracted quotations should begin full out left within the indented block.

Fonts and typography

  • The designer will decide upon these when the typescript has been copy-edited.
  • Attach a separate note if you want particular attention to be paid to the design of a specific section.
  • Ensure that bold and italic have been correctly marked in normal text.

Headings and Sub-headings

  • Part titles and chapter titles should be marked ‘PT and ‘CH’ respectively.
  • Subsequent headings should be marked ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’.
  • Mark ‘Contents’ etc. in Prelims, ‘Index’ in back matter as ‘MH’.
  • The hierarchy used should be as simple as possible.
  • Use a maximum of 3 levels of heading.


  • Hyphenation should be kept to a minimum.
  • Hyphens are normally used for compound adjectives.
  • Hyphens are not used for adverbs.


  • ‘A nineteenth-century building’
  • ‘A building of the nineteenth century’
  • ‘An early century building’


  • Only italicise what is necessary.
  • Use italics for foreign words, except
    • when part of a foreign-language quotation
    • when the word has been assimilated into the English language.
  • Italicise titles of newspapers, journals, plays, books, films, works of art and names of ships.
  • Do not italicise the names of institutions or associations.
  • Do not italicise for emphasis. See also: emphasis.
  • Only italicise ‘see’ and ‘see also’ in the index.
  • Do not italicise surrounding punctuation.

Legal issues

  • If there is any danger of text being interpreted as libellous, err on the side of caution.
  • Do not make personal criticism of living individuals without very careful consideration of the possible legal consequences.


  • All notes should appear as chapter-end notes, unless there is a specific directive to use footnotes (for example: series style).
  • Indicate notes with superscript numerals, without parentheses, outside any punctuation.
  • Do not set sequential in-text notes in tables or figures as their position may change during typesetting.
    • Label notes to tables and figures a, b, c and so on, and present them with the table or figure.
  • Avoid notes to headings
  • Where endnotes are used: insert the heading 'Notes' before the endnotes.
  • Please avoid ‘op. cit.’, ‘loc. cit.’, ‘idem’ and ‘eadem’.
  • ‘ibid.’ (note full point and no italics) can be used to refer to the immediately preceding reference, or part of it, indicated by the page number (Ibid. p. 32).
  • Do not use ‘ibid.’ if there are two references in the preceding note as this is too confusing.
  • For clarity, please give a page number each time you use ‘ibid.’, for example:
  1. Smith, The Book, p. 19.
  2. p. 19.
  3. p. 23.
  4. p. 24.

See also: Bibliography

Numbered lists

  • All numbered lists should be numbered ‘1.’, ‘2.’ and so on
  • Do not use letters or roman numerals
  • Parentheses around numbers can be used in running text [‘I saw (1) an elephant and (2) a mouse] but should not be used for note indicators or in numbered lists
    • For example:
      I saw
  1. an elephant
  2. a mouse

Numbering system

  • Number all figures, photographs and tables decimally by chapter, even in multi-author books
  • For example: the first table in Chapter 3 would be 3.1


  • Ranges of numbers: omit any digits that are not necessary to understanding
  • Any number in the ’teens should show both digits
    • For example: 3–6, 15–17, 23–4, 37–43, 44–101, 100–9, 105–6, 111–13, 115–17, 123–4, 137–43, 144–244.
  • Spell out numbers up to but not including 10 for technical books.
  • Spell out words up to but not including 100 for more literary texts.
  • Use commas, not spaces or full points, for large numbers.
    • For example: 6,000, 10,000.

Oxford Comma

  • We prefer not to use the Oxford comma unless absolutely essential for clarity
    • For example: 'I bought apples, bananas and pears.' - No oxford comma required
    • For example: 'They sent gifts to her sons, Kate, and Sophie.' - Oxford comma required for clarity .
      ('They sent gifts to her sons, Kate and Sophie' could be interpreted as her sons being called Kate and Sophie).


  • Do not use lines of asterisks or other symbols to separate text.
  • Do not indent the first paragraph under a heading.
  • Do indent subsequent paragraphs.


  • We favour 's for words ending in 's'
  • For example: Fawkes's, Woods's, James's, Dickens's
  • Names ending with an 'iz' sound are excluded from this
    • For example: Lis'
  • Certain historical names that typically do not take 's are also excluded
    • For example: Moses', Rabelais', Socrates'

Quotation marks

  • Use single quotation marks throughout, with double quotes for an inner quote
    • For example: 'Newman attempts to salvage the "ultimate horizon for radical politics" offered by anarchism.'
  • Displayed quotations have no quotation marks.
  • Any quotes within a displayed quote will have single quotation marks.
    • See also: Quotations.
  • A few philosophical and linguistics texts use quotation marks for different, specialist purposes. Check with the author if in doubt.
  • Be consistent in the use of curly or straight quotation marks. If authors have used a mixture, query this as there may be some logic behind it.


  • Quotations of more than 40 words should be displayed. Either indent them or type as a separate paragraph with a line space above and below.
  • Introductory ellipses should be avoided.
  • Concluding ellipses are acceptable.
  • Use original spellings. Add [sic] if necessary.
  • Capitalise quotations on an ad hoc basis according to sense.
    • If a quotation starts a new sentence, then use a capital. If it continues as part of a sentence, use lower case.
  • Sources should be indicated using superscript note indicators after the quotation, outside full stops. The source itself should then be given in a numbered note at the end of the chapter.
  • Alternatively, if the source of the quote is given at the end of the quote under the author-date system, the positioning of the source details should be immediately after the quote. If the quote is in verse form, the source details should be on the line below the quote, ranged right.

References to non-print media

Reference Films and CDs as follows:

[title in italic], [media], [director/ composer as appropriate]. [Place]: [producer], [date]

For example:

Macbeth, film, directed by Orson Welles. USA: Republic Pictures, 1948

Scripture references

  • Use Arabic numerals
  • Use a colon and a space to divide chapter and verse
    • For example: 2 Cor. 12: 4

Sexist usage

  • Try not to overuse 'he and she'. Reword to avoid using pronouns in some instances.
  • Consider using the plural ‘they’ if it seems appropriate.
  • If rewording is not possible, it is preferable to use ‘he or she’, not ‘s/he’ or ‘he/she’.
  • Avoid using the word ‘Man’ to refer to the species and in stereotyped clichés
    • For example, do not say: ‘they decided he was the right man for the job’.


  • Use one character space between sentences (after the full stop), not two.
  • Close up figures and abbreviated measurements. For example: 20km, not 20 km.


  • Use British spellings. Use -ise, -our endings.
  • We favour the following: judgement, focused, connection, premise, medieval.


  • Should not contain anything that a typesetter cannot set using a keyboard.
  • Present tables one per page on separate sheets of paper.
  • Should be numbered decimally by chapter.
  • Indicate the ideal location on the page of a table, but please note that the typesetter may not be able to place it exactly where indicated. If this is likely to cause a problem, please indicate what would and would not be acceptable.
  • If the table has any notes, they should be indicated in the table by superscript a, b, c and so on. Do not use asterisks, daggers or other symbols. Supply the notes under the table together with source information.
    • See also: Notes
  • Please check carefully that the tables tally exactly with the text in the use of abbreviations, units of measurement and content.

Web addresses

  • Do not underline web addresses.
  • Do not include terminal punctuation, as this could confuse someone typing the address into their computer.
  • For example: